2.5.6. Transportation of goods, trailer towage
The car is equipped with several capacities intended for placement of transported subjects.
The ware offices located in salon of the car are intended for placement of small subjects. Their number treat the main ware box in dashboards, door pockets and the pockets located in backs of seats, and also the ware box which has been built in the central console (see. Car equipment, arrangement of devices and governing bodies).
Large-sized subjects should be placed in a luggage compartment, or on a car roof (see. Car equipment, arrangement of devices and governing bodies). Transportation of lengthy subjects becomes possible thanks to a harmonious design of backs of a back seat (see. Elements of systems of safety).
It is necessary to remember, however, that the wrong placement of cargo can negatively affect controllability and stability of the car and, therefore, to reduce safety. Before transporting this or that cargo in the car, familiarize with information provided below.
Transportation of goods in the car
Maximum loading capacity of the car
Excess of the maximum admissible loading capacity of the car or the wrong placement of cargo in can become the reason of a road accident and lead to a travmirovaniye and even death being in salon of the car of the driver or passengers. Do not exceed the maximum admissible value of weight gross when loading car, and also other restrictions mentioned in the real Management.
In transit cargoes in the car it is necessary to consider that the full mass of the car should not exceed the maximum admissible value. The full mass of the car includes: the equipped mass of the car, mass of the driver and passengers, mass of the hook-on device established on the car, and also mass of the trailer falling on it. At any options of loading of the car of load of axes also should not exceed limiting admissible values. Information on the maximum admissible values of full weight and axial loadings is provided on the certified label fixed on a rack of a driver's door (see. Maintenance instruction).
Transportation of goods in car salon
Reliably fix all placed in car salon subjects, in order to avoid their shift in case of a road accident.
Be convinced of that the subjects laid on a floor behind forward seats, cannot be rolled forward and under no circumstances are not capable to prevent to manipulate freely to the driver management pedals, and also cannot break correctness of adjustment of provision of forward seats.
Hold ware boxes during movement by the closed.
Transportation of goods in a luggage compartment or on a luggage carrier established on a roof of the car
Try to distribute cargo evenly, placing it it is possible closer to seats. Heavy subjects always should be stacked from below, on a floor of a luggage compartment. Reliably fix transported cargo a strong cord. Never stack luggage above level of backs of seats.
In transit large-sized or lengthy subjects at the combined back seats, try to fix reliably them a strong cord to prevent cargo shift during emergency braking of the car. Do not stack luggage above level of backs of seats in order to avoid reduction of sector of the review to the driver.
In need of transportation of the lengthy subjects, not allowing to close a back door / back glass, remember that the fulfilled gases of the engine can get to salon of the car — carry out the appropriate measures of precaution (see. Elements of systems of safety).
At cargo placement on a luggage carrier established on a roof of the car, track, that the cumulative mass of luggage did not exceed admissible value (see. Car equipment, arrangement of devices and governing bodies). For obtaining more detailed information address on Infiniti company car repair shop.
The wrong placement of luggage, and also transportation of too heavy cargoes on the car or the towed trailer can worsen considerably controllability and brake properties of a transport means / road train that is fraught with emergency creation on roads. Before a start of motion always attentively check correctness of loading of the car and the trailer.
The scheme of distribution of loadings at trailer towage
The explanation by calculation of full weight of the car
Models of cars considered in the real Management first of all are, of course, passenger and are intended for transportation of people and their luggage. However, at obligatory observance of a number of the general rules which are given below, Infiniti cars can be used also with success for trailer towage.
The maximum vertical load of the hook-on device of the car at full mass of the trailer should not exceed 227 kgfs. It is necessary to adhere to the following rule: vertical load of the hook-on device should make about 9 — 10 % from full weight of the trailer (see an illustration
the Scheme of distribution of loadings at trailer towage). For example, if the full mass of the trailer with cargo is equal 225 kg, vertical load of the hook-on device should make about 22.5 kgfs. Adjust load of a car turnbuckle, as appropriate placing cargo on the trailer. For a start it is recommended to place cargo so that about 60 % of its weight were ahead of a trailer axis, and 40 % — behind. If the full mass of the trailer exceeds 500 kg, try to distribute cargo on length of the trailer more evenly. Never load the trailer so that the back part of the trailer outweighed a lobby, is leads to unloading of back wheels of the car that worsens coupling of tires with a paving.
At full weight over 454 kg the trailer should be equipped with the brake mechanism.
Full masses of the car and the towed trailer should not exceed the corresponding maximum admissible values.
The full mass of the car includes: the equipped mass of the car, mass of the driver, passengers and luggage, mass of the hook-on device and mass of the trailer falling on it. Remember that the mass of the additional equipment established on the car and the mass of the trailer falling on a turnbuckle (at trailer towage), reduce by the corresponding sizes useful loading capacity of a vehicle (see
the illustration Explanation by calculation of full weight of the car).
The most reliable way of check of correctness of loading of the car and the trailer is weighing. Load the car and the trailer how they are usually maintained as a part of a road train, and weigh them on cargo scales. Define values of full mass of the car and the trailer, and also the masses falling on an axes of the car and the trailer. Compare results of measurements to requirements of Specifications (see. Maintenance instruction).
Installation of the hook-on devices which are not corresponding on the standard sizes to massogabaritny characteristics of the trailer, or incorrectly established on the car, can become the reason of damage of body elements of a vehicle.
The design of the hook-on device intended for installation on the car should meet completely to all corresponding technical requirements — in case of need consult at Infiniti company car repair shop.
The hook-on device should fasten in several specially provided points on the basis of a car body that loadings from the towed trailer were distributed more evenly and fell on elements of strengthening of a body. It is forbidden to mount the hook-on devices leaning only on a rear bumper which is not intended for perception of similar loads on the car. Installation of a turnbuckle should be made by car-care center qualified personnel.
Towage of the large-sized trailer (Caravan type) usually demands installation on the car of additional rear-view mirrors with the extended arms. Specify requirements of the local legislation and the Traffic regulations, concerning towages of trailers by cars. Attach the trailer to the car and estimate extent of deterioration of the back review through standard rear-view mirrors. If the review unsatisfactory, for reasons of safety it is necessary to equip the special mirrors, providing to the driver the adequate review of space behind the car.
Connection of the trailer to the car
At acquisition of the trailer equipped with brake mechanisms, be convinced that they have an electric drive of management — the design of a hydraulic drive of working brake system of your car does not provide connection possibility to it any additional contours, in particular, for actuating of brake mechanisms of the trailer. Any way of accession to a brake hydraulic actuator of the car of brake system of the trailer, what attractive it would not seem, will lead to deterioration of efficiency of braking of the car and decrease in traffic safety.
Attaching the trailer to the car, always use a safety chain. The ends of a safety chain should be reliably fixed to the corresponding places on дышле the trailer and on the hook-on device of the car. Track, that the chain passed under dyshly the trailer — it will prevent falling of the forward end дышла on the road in case of a hitch rassoyedineniye. The free length of a chain should be sufficient not to disturb commission of turns of a road train with the minimum radiuses, however, it is not necessary to allow chain drawings on the ground.
Devices of external lighting and the alarm system on the trailer
As on trailers of various brands various laying of electroconducting can be used, it is necessary to charge the equipment of a turnbuckle to specialists of car-care center. In certain cases installation of a transitional nozzle (adapter) can be demanded.
Before connecting trailer electric equipment to the car power supply network, surely consult at car repair shop.
Preparation for trailer towage
- Before a start of motion it is necessary to make control survey and car and trailer check.
- Measure the vertical loading falling on the hook-on device — use usual floor scales.
- Check reliability of fastening дышла the trailer and a safety chain.
- Check a technical condition of tires and pressure of air in tires on the car and the trailer. The lowered pressure of air in tires considerably worsens controllability of the car and a road train. At the same time check a condition and pressure of air in a spare wheel.
- Having completely loaded and having attached the trailer to the car, make sure of lack of excessive "prosedaniye" of a back part of the car — in case of need cargo in the car / trailer.
- Check serviceability of functioning of devices of external lighting and the alarm system on the car and the trailer.
- Specify operating restrictions of traffic regulations on the maximum speed of movement of a road train as a part of the car and the trailer. Planning to make a trip on several countries, in advance familiarize with features of local requirements and the restrictions concerning towage of the trailer with the car as in each country the restrictions can operate.
In the European countries restriction of speed of movement of a road train as a part of the car and the trailer is established at level of 100 km/h.
Security measures at trailer towage
It is necessary to consider that the brake way of the car towing the trailer, increases. Therefore, moving with the trailer, you should support the increased distance to ahead going car. Try to avoid sharp braking and turns. It can lead to folding of a road train or even a trailer perevorachivaniye.
Remember that the length of a road train considerably exceeds length of the single car. At turn to the right leave between edge of a carriageway and wheels of the right board of the car the bigger distance, than usually is considerable to avoid arrival by trailer wheels on a border. Consider that at road train turn the trailer moves on an arch of smaller radius, than the car, and can run or face an obstacle which the car freely passed. When overtaking other vehicle do not hurry up to come back to the row as it can lead to collision of the overtaken car with the trailer.
The road train, in comparison with the single car, is more sensitive to action of rushes of a lateral wind and aerodynamic indignations from other cars. If you are overtaken at great speed by the heavy truck or a road train, try to support rectilinear and uniform movement of the car. To reduce the aerodynamic indignations operating on a road train from ahead going car, lower speed to leave a turbulent stream.
At trailer towage load of all main units and systems of the car increases. Therefore at frequent use of the car for towage of the trailer it is necessary to carry out periodic maintenance of the car according to regulations, characteristic for intense service conditions (see. Head Routine maintenance).
Additional load of the car even more increases at road train operation in the hilly district. When overcoming long liftings watch closely a temperature mode of the engine according to the strelochny index on a control panel. At approach of an arrow of the index to an overheat zone, switch off the air conditioner (if it is equipped and included) and continue movement. If the temperature of cooling liquid of the engine does not decrease, or continues to raise, stop on a roadside of the road and let's to the engine cool down.
The conditioner of air should be switched off also at prompt increase in speed on descent at movement in a hilly or hilly terrain. If the temperature of cooling liquid of the engine constantly raises at movement on the second transfer, reduce speed of movement below a mark of 60 km/h.
At movement in a hilly or hilly terrain cyclic switching of the third and fourth transfers of automatic transmission can be observed. In this case it is necessary to pass to the lowered range «3» that will prevent an overheat and excessive wear of details of the AT frictional elements. In order to avoid an overheat of brake mechanisms at movement on long descents use braking by the engine. For effective braking by the engine include the lowered range or one of the lowest steps of an automatic transmission.
At a road train stop on lifting do not hold it on a place by pressing педели gas — it can lead to AT overheat. Use working brake system, or the parking brake.
At management of automatic transmission in a manual mode use the third, second and first transfers, being conformed to speed of movement of the car and road conditions. Towing the trailer, do not include the fourth transfer. Recommended high-speed ranges are given in Specifications for use of various steps of a transmission (see. Maintenance instruction).
At a road train parking on long parking, especially on descent or lifting, accept all precautionary measures for reliable braking of the car and the trailer. Turn forward wheels of the car so that at a road train skatyvaniye they rested against a bordyurny stone. Completely cock the parking brake and transfer the lever of the selector of ranges to the situation "R" (track that the transfer case was not in neutral situation — see. Car parking). On equipped RKPP models include the first, or a reverse gear. In addition enclose under both wheels of the trailer protivootkatny boots.
Management of road train at movement by a backing presents certain difficulties and demands from the driver of special skills and training. Move a backing carefully and slowly, do not rotate unduly quickly a steering wheel. When maneuvering by a backing in the constrained conditions it is useful, that someone, standing outside, watched movings of the trailer and directed your actions. Keep in mind that at rotation of a steering wheel clockwise (to the right) the trailer moves to the left, and on the contrary. When maneuvering road train by a backing it is recommended to hold a rim of a steering wheel from below (instead of from above, as usual, at movement by a forward course). At such successful fellow habitual compliance between the direction of turn of a steering wheel and trailer movement remains: hand shift to the left leads to trailer turn also to the left and on the contrary.